Dan Holliday, I am an American
Updated 2 Oct 2015
First, the US doesn’t have +1. Non-Hispanic North America does (which includes Canada and much of the Caribbean). These nations participate in the North American Numbering Plan which means we do NOT have country codes at all, but utilize the single region code as an access point to 900 area codes.

But why “+1”?

The US was the most powerful force on Earth and certainly in terms of the capitalist portion thereof. The various treaties which created international calling codes were pioneered by the US and when the US wanted something, the rest of the world simply said, “Okay. Have at it.”

When the list of country calling codes was invented, the world was divided into nine zones. Within those zones, each nation would create area codes. The US exists in zone “1”. Beyond that, it was left to each region to decide what numbering plan they would use. As mentioned, the US, Canada and much of the Caribbean utilized the North American Numbering Plan. In much of Europe, they chose a different numbering plan. But the thought is the same: regional code + area code/exchange + local number.

Ignore the hyphens (-) in phone numbers. They’re useless. The system does have regional and local codes (called exchanges). But the hyphens are there for your convenience. That will help you understand how this works a bit better.

Regions 3 and 4 (Europe) did theirs differently. They decided to assign each nation a prefix attached to its zone number. So, where the US has (effectively) 900 or so “area codes” (mine is 1440). Countries like Spain attached a secondary number to theirs (34) have one.

THANKS TO DAN HOLLIDAY for the article


short Bytes: Most of us have the habit of constantly refreshing our Windows machines. Many times, we just do it because we have to. But, we haven’t thought of the actual thing the Refresh option does to our machine. Read further to know, what the Refresh option in Windows actually does.
Most of us refresh our Windows desktop for uncountable times in a day. But, very few of us know what the Refresh option actually does to our operating system.

The Refresh option in Windows doesn’t clear the system memory, making it clutter free.
What actually happens is that Windows has an auto-refresh feature inbuilt by Microsoft which enables the screen to display the changes made to a folder–even desktop is just a folder for your operating system–either by you or a third-party application or if you want to re-align the folders on your desktop.

Sometimes, the auto-refresh option fails to display the change on your screen. So, you have to manually do it yourself by clicking the Refresh button in the context menu. I would like to tell you that no miracle happens when you click the refresh button. It won’t make any changes in the performance. Your Windows machine won’t transform into a supercomputer.

Most people, have developed a habit of constantly refreshing Windows for no reason. I have shifted to Ubuntu recently and I find myself searching for the Refresh option in the context menu, but it is nowhere to be seen because Linux-based operating systems don’t have it.

It seems like a daily ritual for most of us, our hands involuntarily keep pressing the F5. And some of us even overcome our laziness and refresh windows using a mouse which is a tiresome job, though. So, try to get rid of this bad habit.

Talking technical, all the stuff you see on your desktop is a static frame. Let’s take an example of a movie — In earlier times we went to cinema theatres which used camera reels to project the movie on a white screen. Each reel had many images arranged in an order and they were projected on the screen at a specific rate i.e. 24 images/frames per second. You might’ve heard about the term FPS (frames per second), it’s the same thing. Human eye can’t distinguish if the FPS is 24 or above.

In current times, the same process is followed but the photos are now saved in a digitally compressed file which is given an extension like MP4 or MKV. It makes the video portable and we can open it on our computer.

So, consider a frame generated by your OS as an image. Frames are displayed on your screen one after the other giving you a feel that everything is continuous. Each frame comprises of different UI (User Interface) components like background, icons and their names. When each frame is constructed, all the components are placed on it, like first the background, then the icons and their names. The taskbar acts as a layer which is placed on the top of the background.

Now, if each component would have to be placed in every succeeding frame, then it would be a tiresome job for the hardware. So, to reduce the burden on the hardware, an optimisation technique has been deduced in which only the components which are needed to be changed are marked as dirty and then recreated in the next frame. This reduces the load on the CPU.

The refresh option marks all the components of the screen as dirty, so, the whole screen is recreated in the next frame and displayed on your monitor. That’s the prime job of the Refresh option in Windows.

So, feel free to press the F5 button the next time. But, do decide whether you need it or not. Anyways, it’s your machine and the Refresh option is free–press it as many times you want.



1) Able Seamen
2) Accountants
3) Accountants and Auditors
4) Actors
5) Actuaries
6) Acupuncturists *** New ***
7) Acute Care Nurses *** New ***
8) Adapted Physical Education Specialists *** New ***
9) Adjustment Clerks
10) Administrative Law Judges, Adjudicators, and Hearing Officers
11) Administrative Services Managers
12) Adult Literacy, Remedial Education, and GED Teachers and Instructors
13) Advanced Practice Psychiatric Nurses *** New ***
14) Advertising and Promotions Managers
15) Advertising Sales Agents
16) Aerospace Engineering and Operations Technicians
17) Aerospace Engineers
18) Agents and Business Managers of Artists, Performers, and Athletes
19) Agricultural and Food Science Technicians
20) Agricultural Crop Farm Managers
21) Agricultural Engineers
22) Agricultural Equipment Operators
23) Agricultural Inspectors
24) Agricultural Sciences Teachers, Postsecondary
25) Agricultural Technicians
26) Agricultural Workers, All Other
27) Air Crew Members
28) Air Crew Officers
29) Air Traffic Controllers
30) Aircraft Body and Bonded Structure Repairers

31) Aircraft Cargo Handling Supervisors
32) Aircraft Engine Specialists
33) Aircraft Launch and Recovery Officers
34) Aircraft Launch and Recovery Specialists
35) Aircraft Mechanics and Service Technicians
36) Aircraft Rigging Assemblers
37) Aircraft Structure Assemblers, Precision
38) Aircraft Structure, Surfaces, Rigging, and Systems Assemblers
39) Aircraft Systems Assemblers, Precision
40) Airfield Operations Specialists
41) Airframe-and-Power-Plant Mechanics
42) Airline Pilots, Copilots, and Flight Engineers
43) Allergists and Immunologists *** New ***
44) Ambulance Drivers and Attendants, Except Emergency Medical Technicians
45) Amusement and Recreation Attendants
46) Anesthesiologist Assistants *** New ***
47) Anesthesiologists
48) Animal Breeders
49) Animal Control Workers
50) Animal Scientists
51) Animal Trainers
52) Anthropologists
53) Anthropologists and Archeologists
54) Anthropology and Archeology Teachers, Postsecondary
55) Appraisers and Assessors of Real Estate
56) Appraisers, Real Estate
57) Aquacultural Managers *** New ***
58) Arbitrators, Mediators, and Conciliators
59) Archeologists
60) Architects, Except Landscape and Naval
61) Architectural and Civil Drafters
62) Architectural Drafters
63) Architecture Teachers, Postsecondary
64) Archivists
65) Area, Ethnic, and Cultural Studies Teachers, Postsecondary
66) Armored Assault Vehicle Crew Members
67) Armored Assault Vehicle Officers
68) Art Directors
69) Art Therapists *** New ***
70) Art, Drama, and Music Teachers, Postsecondary
71) Artillery and Missile Crew Members
72) Artillery and Missile Officers
73) Artists and Related Workers, All Other
74) Assemblers and Fabricators, All Other
75) Assessors
76) Astronomers
77) Athletes and Sports Competitors
78) Athletic Trainers
79) Atmospheric and Space Scientists
80) Atmospheric, Earth, Marine, and Space Sciences Teachers, Postsecondary
81) Audio and Video Equipment Technicians
82) Audiologist *** New ***
83) Audiologists
84) Audio-Visual Collections Specialists
85) Auditors
86) Automatic Teller Machine Servicers
87) Automotive Body and Related Repairers
88) Automotive Engineering Technicians *** New ***
89) Automotive Engineers *** New ***
90) Automotive Glass Installers and Repairers
91) Automotive Master Mechanics
92) Automotive Service Technicians and Mechanics
93) Automotive Specialty Technicians
94) Auxiliary Equipment Operators, Power
95) Aviation Inspectors
96) Avionics Technicians
97) Baggage Porters and Bellhops
98) Bailiffs
99) Bakers
100) Bakers, Bread and Pastry
101) Bakers, Manufacturing
102) Barbers
103) Baristas *** New ***
104) Bartenders
105) Battery Repairers
106) Bench Workers, Jewelry
107) Bicycle Repairers
108) Bill and Account Collectors
109) Billing and Posting Clerks and Machine Operators
110) Billing, Cost, and Rate Clerks
111) Billing, Posting, and Calculating Machine Operators
112) Bindery Machine Operators and Tenders
113) Bindery Machine Setters and Set-Up Operators
114) Bindery Workers
115) Biochemical Engineers *** New ***
116) Biochemists
117) Biochemists and Biophysicists
118) Biofuels Processing Technicians *** New ***
119) Biofuels Production Managers *** New ***
120) Biofuels/Biodiesel Technology and Product Development Managers *** New ***
121) Bioinformatics Scientists *** New ***
122) Bioinformatics Technicians *** New ***
123) Biological Science Teachers, Postsecondary
124) Biological Scientists, All Other
125) Biological Technicians
126) Biologists
127) Biomass Plant Technicians *** New ***
128) Biomass Power Plant Managers *** New ***
129) Biomedical Engineers
130) Biophysicists
131) Biostatisticians *** New ***
132) Boat Builders and Shipwrights
133) Boiler Operators and Tenders, Low Pressure
134) Boilermakers
135) Bookbinders
136) Bookkeeping, Accounting, and Auditing Clerks
137) Brattice Builders
138) Brazers
139) Brickmasons and Blockmasons
140) Bridge and Lock Tenders
141) Broadcast News Analysts
142) Broadcast Technicians
143) Brokerage Clerks
144) Brownfield Redevelopment Specialists and Site Managers *** New ***
145) Budget Analysts
146) Buffing and Polishing Set-Up Operators
147) Building Cleaning Workers, All Other
148) Bus and Truck Mechanics and Diesel Engine Specialists
149) Bus Drivers, School
150) Bus Drivers, Transit and Intercity
151) Business Continuity Planners *** New ***
152) Business Intelligence Analysts *** New ***
153) Business Operations Specialists, All Other
154) Business Teachers, Postsecondary
155) Butchers and Meat Cutters
156) Cabinetmakers and Bench Carpenters
157) Calibration and Instrumentation Technicians
158) Camera and Photographic Equipment Repairers
159) Camera Operators
160) Camera Operators, Television, Video, and Motion Picture
161) Captains, Mates, and Pilots of Water Vessels
162) Caption Writers
163) Cardiovascular Technologists and Technicians
164) Cargo and Freight Agents
165) Carpenter Assemblers and Repairers
166) Carpenters
167) Carpet Installers
168) Cartographers and Photogrammetrists
169) Cartoonists
170) Cashiers
171) Casting Machine Set-Up Operators
172) Ceiling Tile Installers
173) Cement Masons and Concrete Finishers
174) Cementing and Gluing Machine Operators and Tenders
175) Central Office and PBX Installers and Repairers
176) Central Office Operators
177) Chefs and Head Cooks
178) Chemical Engineers
179) Chemical Equipment Controllers and Operators
180) Chemical Equipment Operators and Tenders
181) Chemical Equipment Tenders
182) Chemical Plant and System Operators
183) Chemical Technicians
184) Chemistry Teachers, Postsecondary
185) Chemists
186) Chief Executives
187) Chief Sustainability Officers *** New ***
188) Child Care Workers
189) Child Support, Missing Persons, and Unemployment Insurance Fraud Investigators
190) Child, Family, and School Social Workers
191) Chiropractors
192) Choreographers
193) City Planning Aides
194) Civil Drafters
195) Civil Engineering Technicians
196) Civil Engineers
197) Claims Adjusters, Examiners, and Investigators
198) Claims Examiners, Property and Casualty Insurance
199) Claims Takers, Unemployment Benefits
200) Cleaners of Vehicles and Equipment
201) Cleaning, Washing, and Metal Pickling Equipment Operators and Tenders
202) Clergy
203) Climate Change Analysts *** New ***
204) Clinical Data Managers *** New ***
205) Clinical Nurse Specialists *** New ***
206) Clinical Psychologists
207) Clinical Research Coordinators *** New ***
208) Clinical, Counseling, and School Psychologists
209) Coaches and Scouts
210) Coating, Painting, and Spraying Machine Operators and Tenders
211) Coating, Painting, and Spraying Machine Setters and Set-Up Operators
212) Coating, Painting, and Spraying Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders
213) Coil Winders, Tapers, and Finishers
214) Coin, Vending, and Amusement Machine Servicers and Repairers
215) Combination Machine Tool Operators and Tenders, Metal and Plastic
216) Combination Machine Tool Setters and Set-Up Operators, Metal and Plastic
217) Combined Food Preparation and Serving Workers, Including Fast Food
218) Command and Control Center Officers
219) Command and Control Center Specialists
220) Commercial and Industrial Designers
221) Commercial Divers
222) Commercial Pilots
223) Communication Equipment Mechanics, Installers, and Repairers
224) Communications Equipment Operators, All Other
225) Communications Teachers, Postsecondary
226) Community and Social Service Specialists, All Other
227) Community Health Workers *** New ***
228) Compensation and Benefits Managers *** New ***
229) Compensation and Benefits Managers
230) Compensation, Benefits, and Job Analysis Specialist *** New ***
231) Compensation, Benefits, and Job Analysis Specialists
232) Compliance Managers *** New ***
233) Compliance Officers, Except Agriculture, Construction, Health and Safety, and Transportation
234) Composers
235) Computer and Information Research Scientists *** New ***
236) Computer and Information Scientists, Research
237) Computer and Information Systems Managers
238) Computer Hardware Engineers
239) Computer Network Architects *** New ***
240) Computer Network Support Specialists *** New ***
241) Computer Operators
242) Computer Programmer *** New ***
243) Computer Programmers
244) Computer Science Teachers, Postsecondary
245) Computer Security Specialists
246) Computer Software Engineers, Applications
247) Computer Software Engineers, Systems Software
248) Computer Specialists, All Other
249) Computer Support Specialists
250) Computer Systems Analyst *** New ***
251) Computer Systems Analysts
252) Computer Systems Engineers/Architects *** New ***
253) Computer User Support Specialists *** New ***
254) Computer, Automated Teller, and Office Machine Repairers
255) Computer-Controlled Machine Tool Operators, Metal and Plastic
256) Concierges
257) Conservation Scientists
258) Construction and Building Inspectors
259) Construction and Related Workers, All Other
260) Construction Carpenters
261) Construction Drillers
262) Construction Laborers
263) Construction Managers
264) Continuous Mining Machine Operators
265) Control and Valve Installers and Repairers, Except Mechanical Door
266) Conveyor Operators and Tenders
267) Cooks, All Other
268) Cooks, Fast Food
269) Cooks, Institution and Cafeteria
270) Cooks, Private Household
271) Cooks, Restaurant
272) Cooks, Short Order
273) Cooling and Freezing Equipment Operators and Tenders
274) Copy Writers
275) Coroners
276) Correctional Officers and Jailers
277) Correspondence Clerks
278) Cost Estimators
279) Costume Attendants
280) Counseling Psychologists
281) Counselors, All Other
282) Counter and Rental Clerks
283) Counter Attendants, Cafeteria, Food Concession, and Coffee Shop
284) Couriers and Messengers
285) Court Clerks
286) Court Reporters
287) Court, Municipal, and License Clerks
288) Craft Artists
289) Crane and Tower Operators
290) Creative Writers
291) Credit Analysts
292) Credit Authorizers
293) Credit Authorizers, Checkers, and Clerks
294) Credit Checkers
295) Criminal Investigators and Special Agents
296) Criminal Justice and Law Enforcement Teachers, Postsecondary
297) Critical Care Nurses *** New ***
298) Crossing Guards
299) Crushing, Grinding, and Polishing Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders
300) Curators
301) Custom Tailors
302) Customer Service Representatives
303) Customer Service Representatives, Utilities
304) Customs Brokers *** New ***
305) Cutters and Trimmers, Hand
306) Cutting and Slicing Machine Operators and Tenders
307) Cutting and Slicing Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders
308) Cutting, Punching, and Press Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic
309) Cytogenetic Technologists *** New ***
310) Cytotechnologists *** New ***
311) Dancers
312) Data Entry Keyers
313) Data Processing Equipment Repairers
314) Data Warehousing Specialists *** New ***
315) Database Administrator *** New ***
316) Database Administrators
317) Database Architects *** New ***
318) Demonstrators and Product Promoters
319) Dental Assistants
320) Dental Hygienists
321) Dental Laboratory Technicians
322) Dentists, All Other Specialists
323) Dentists, General
324) Dermatologists *** New ***
325) Derrick Operators, Oil and Gas
326) Design Printing Machine Setters and Set-Up Operators
327) Designers, All Other
328) Desktop Publishers
329) Detectives and Criminal Investigators
330) Diagnostic Medical Sonographers
331) Dietetic Technicians
332) Dietitians and Nutritionists
333) Dining Room and Cafeteria Attendants and Bartender Helpers
334) Directors- Stage, Motion Pictures, Television, and Radio
335) Directors, Religious Activities and Education
336) Directory Assistance Operators
337) Dishwashers
338) Dispatchers, Except Police, Fire, and Ambulance
339) Distance Learning Coordinators *** New ***
340) Document Management Specialists *** New ***
341) Door-To-Door Sales Workers, News and Street Vendors, and Related Workers
342) Dot Etchers
343) Drafters, All Other
344) Dragline Operators
345) Dredge Operators
346) Drilling and Boring Machine Tool Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic
347) Driver-Sales Workers
348) Drywall and Ceiling Tile Installers
349) Drywall Installers
350) Duplicating Machine Operators
351) Earth Drillers, Except Oil and Gas
352) Economics Teachers, Postsecondary
353) Economists
354) Editors
355) Education Administrators, All Other
356) Education Administrators, Elementary and Secondary School
357) Education Administrators, Postsecondary
358) Education Administrators, Preschool and Child Care Center–Program
359) Education Teachers, Postsecondary
360) Education, Training, and Library Workers, All Other
361) Educational Psychologists
362) Educational, Vocational, and School Counselors
363) Electric Home Appliance and Power Tool Repairers
364) Electric Meter Installers and Repairers
365) Electric Motor and Switch Assemblers and Repairers
366) Electric Motor, Power Tool, and Related Repairers
367) Electrical and Electronic Engineering Technicians
368) Electrical and Electronic Equipment Assemblers
369) Electrical and Electronic Inspectors and Testers
370) Electrical and Electronics Drafters
371) Electrical and Electronics Installers and Repairers, Transportation Equipment
372) Electrical and Electronics Repairers, Commercial and Industrial Equipment
373) Electrical and Electronics Repairers, Powerhouse, Substation, and Relay
374) Electrical Drafters
375) Electrical Engineering Technicians
376) Electrical Engineering Technologists *** New ***
377) Electrical Engineers
378) Electrical Parts Reconditioners
379) Electrical Power-Line Installers and Repairers
380) Electricians
381) Electrolytic Plating and Coating Machine Operators and Tenders, Metal and Plastic
382) Electrolytic Plating and Coating Machine Setters and Set-Up Operators, Metal and Plastic
383) Electromechanical Engineering Technologists *** New ***
384) Electromechanical Equipment Assemblers
385) Electro-Mechanical Technicians
386) Electronic Drafters
387) Electronic Equipment Installers and Repairers, Motor Vehicles
388) Electronic Home Entertainment Equipment Installers and Repairers
389) Electronic Masking System Operators
390) Electronics Engineering Technicians
391) Electronics Engineering Technologists *** New ***
392) Electronics Engineers, Except Computer
393) Electrotypers and Stereotypers
394) Elementary School Teachers, Except Special Education
395) Elevator Installers and Repairers
396) Eligibility Interviewers, Government Programs
397) Embalmers
398) Embossing Machine Set-Up Operators
399) Emergency Management Directors *** New ***
400) Emergency Management Specialists
401) Emergency Medical Technicians and Paramedics
402) Employment Interviewers, Private or Public Employment Service
403) Employment, Recruitment, and Placement Specialists
404) Endoscopy Technicians *** New ***
405) Energy Auditors *** New ***
406) Energy Brokers *** New ***
407) Energy Engineers *** New ***
408) Engine and Other Machine Assemblers
409) Engineering Managers
410) Engineering Teachers, Postsecondary
411) Engineering Technicians, Except Drafters, All Other
412) Engineers, All Other
413) English Language and Literature Teachers, Postsecondary
414) Engraver Set-Up Operators
415) Engravers, Hand
416) Engravers–Carvers
417) Entertainers and Performers, Sports and Related Workers, All Other
418) Entertainment Attendants and Related Workers, All Other
419) Environmental Compliance Inspectors
420) Environmental Economists *** New ***
421) Environmental Engineering Technicians
422) Environmental Engineers
423) Environmental Restoration Planners *** New ***
424) Environmental Science and Protection Technicians, Including Health
425) Environmental Science Teachers, Postsecondary
426) Environmental Scientists and Specialists, Including Health
427) Epidemiologists
428) Equal Opportunity Representatives and Officers
429) Etchers
430) Etchers and Engravers
431) Etchers, Hand
432) Excavating and Loading Machine and Dragline Operators
433) Excavating and Loading Machine Operators
434) Executive Secretaries and Administrative Assistants
435) Exercise Physiologists *** New ***
436) Exhibit Designers
437) Explosives Workers, Ordnance Handling Experts, and Blasters
438) Extraction Workers, All Other
439) Extruding and Drawing Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic
440) Extruding and Forming Machine Operators and Tenders, Synthetic or Glass Fibers
441) Extruding and Forming Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Synthetic and Glass Fibers
442) Extruding, Forming, Pressing, and Compacting Machine Operators and Tenders
443) Extruding, Forming, Pressing, and Compacting Machine Setters and Set-Up Operators
444) Extruding, Forming, Pressing, and Compacting Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders
445) Fabric and Apparel Patternmakers
446) Fabric Menders, Except Garment
447) Fallers
448) Family and General Practitioners
449) Farm and Home Management Advisors
450) Farm and Ranch Managers *** New ***
451) Farm Equipment Mechanics
452) Farm Labor Contractor *** New ***
453) Farm Labor Contractors
454) Farm, Ranch, and Other Agricultural Managers
455) Farmers and Ranchers
456) Farmworkers and Laborers, Crop, Nursery, and Greenhouse
457) Farmworkers, Farm and Ranch Animals
458) Fashion Designers
459) Fence Erectors
460) Fiber Product Cutting Machine Setters and Set-Up Operators
461) Fiberglass Laminators and Fabricators
462) File Clerks
463) Film and Video Editors
464) Film Laboratory Technicians
465) Financial Analysts
466) Financial Examiners
467) Financial Managers
468) Financial Managers, Branch or Department
469) Financial Quantitative Analysts *** New ***
470) Financial Specialists, All Other
471) Fine Artists, Including Painters, Sculptors, and Illustrators
472) Fire Fighters
473) Fire Inspectors
474) Fire Inspectors and Investigators
475) Fire Investigators
476) Fire-Prevention and Protection Engineers
477) First-Line Supervisors and Manager-Supervisors – Agricultural Crop Workers
478) First-Line Supervisors and Manager-Supervisors – Animal Care Workers, Except Livestock
479) First-Line Supervisors and Manager-Supervisors – Animal Husbandry Workers
480) First-Line Supervisors and Manager-Supervisors – Fishery Workers
481) First-Line Supervisors and Manager-Supervisors – Horticultural Workers
482) First-Line Supervisors and Manager-Supervisors – Landscaping Workers
483) First-Line Supervisors and Manager-Supervisors – Logging Workers
484) First-Line Supervisors and Manager-Supervisors- Construction Trades Workers
485) First-Line Supervisors and Manager-Supervisors- Extractive Workers
486) First-Line Supervisors of Agricultural Crop and Horticultural Workers *** New ***
487) First-Line Supervisors of Animal Husbandry and Animal Care Workers *** New ***
488) First-Line Supervisors, Administrative Support
489) First-Line Supervisors, Customer Service
490) First-Line Supervisors-Managers of Air Crew Members
491) First-Line Supervisors-Managers of All Other Tactical Operations Specialists
492) First-Line Supervisors-Managers of Construction Trades and Extraction Workers
493) First-Line Supervisors-Managers of Correctional Officers
494) First-Line Supervisors-Managers of Farming, Fishing, and Forestry Workers
495) First-Line Supervisors-Managers of Fire Fighting and Prevention Workers
496) First-Line Supervisors-Managers of Food Preparation and Serving Workers
497) First-Line Supervisors-Managers of Helpers, Laborers, and Material Movers, Hand
498) First-Line Supervisors-Managers of Housekeeping and Janitorial Workers
499) First-Line Supervisors-Managers of Landscaping, Lawn Service, and Groundskeeping Workers
500) First-Line Supervisors-Managers of Mechanics, Installers, and Repairers
501) First-Line Supervisors-Managers of Non-Retail Sales Workers
502) First-Line Supervisors-Managers of Office and Administrative Support Workers
503) First-Line Supervisors-Managers of Personal Service Workers
504) First-Line Supervisors-Managers of Police and Detectives
505) First-Line Supervisors-Managers of Production and Operating Workers
506) First-Line Supervisors-Managers of Retail Sales Workers
507) First-Line Supervisors-Managers of Transportation and Material-Moving Machine and Vehicle Operators
508) First-Line Supervisors-Managers of Weapons Specialists–Crew Members
509) First-Line Supervisors-Managers, Protective Service Workers, All Other
510) Fish and Game Wardens
511) Fish Hatchery Managers
512) Fishers and Related Fishing Workers
513) Fitness and Wellness Coordinators *** New ***
514) Fitness Trainers and Aerobics Instructors
515) Fitters, Structural Metal- Precision
516) Flight Attendant *** New ***
517) Flight Attendants
518) Floor Layers, Except Carpet, Wood, and Hard Tiles
519) Floor Sanders and Finishers
520) Floral Designers
521) Food and Tobacco Roasting, Baking, and Drying Machine Operators and Tenders
522) Food Batchmakers
523) Food Cooking Machine Operators and Tenders
524) Food Preparation and Serving Related Workers, All Other
525) Food Preparation Workers
526) Food Science Technicians
527) Food Scientists and Technologists
528) Food Servers, Nonrestaurant
529) Food Service Managers
530) Foreign Language and Literature Teachers, Postsecondary
531) Forensic Science Technicians
532) Forest and Conservation Technicians
533) Forest and Conservation Workers
534) Forest Fire Fighters
535) Forest Fire Fighting and Prevention Supervisors
536) Forest Fire Inspectors and Prevention Specialists
537) Foresters
538) Forestry and Conservation Science Teachers, Postsecondary
539) Forging Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic
540) Foundry Mold and Coremakers
541) Frame Wirers, Central Office
542) Fraud Examiners, Investigators and Analysts *** New ***
543) Freight and Cargo Inspectors *** New ***
544) Freight Forwarders *** New ***
545) Freight Inspectors
546) Freight, Stock, and Material Movers, Hand
547) Fuel Cell Engineers *** New ***
548) Fuel Cell Technicians *** New ***
549) Fundraisers *** New ***
550) Funeral Attendants
551) Funeral Directors
552) Furnace, Kiln, Oven, Drier, and Kettle Operators and Tenders
553) Furniture Finishers
554) Gaming and Sports Book Writers and Runners
555) Gaming Cage Workers
556) Gaming Change Persons and Booth Cashiers
557) Gaming Dealers
558) Gaming Managers
559) Gaming Service Workers, All Other
560) Gaming Supervisors
561) Gaming Surveillance Officers and Gaming Investigators
562) Gas Appliance Repairers
563) Gas Compressor and Gas Pumping Station Operators
564) Gas Compressor Operators
565) Gas Distribution Plant Operators
566) Gas Plant Operators
567) Gas Processing Plant Operators
568) Gas Pumping Station Operators
569) Gaugers
570) Gem and Diamond Workers
571) General and Operations Managers
572) General Farmworkers
573) Genetic Counselors *** New ***
574) Geneticists *** New ***
575) Geodetic Surveyors *** New ***
576) Geographers
577) Geographic Information Systems Technicians *** New ***
578) Geography Teachers, Postsecondary
579) Geological and Petroleum Technicians
580) Geological Data Technicians
581) Geological Sample Test Technicians
582) Geologists
583) Geoscientists, Except Hydrologists and Geographers
584) Geospatial Information Scientists and Technologists *** New ***
585) Geothermal Production Managers *** New ***
586) Geothermal Technicians *** New ***
587) Glass Blowers, Molders, Benders, and Finishers
588) Glass Cutting Machine Setters and Set-Up Operators
589) Glaziers
590) Government Property Inspectors and Investigators
591) Government Service Executives
592) Grader, Bulldozer, and Scraper Operators
593) Graders and Sorters, Agricultural Products
594) Graduate Teaching Assistants
595) Graphic Designers
596) Green Marketers *** New ***
597) Grinding and Polishing Workers, Hand
598) Grinding, Honing, Lapping, and Deburring Machine Set-Up Operators
599) Grinding, Lapping, Polishing, and Buffing Machine Tool Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic
600) Grips and Set-Up Workers, Motion Picture Sets, Studios, and Stages
601) Grounds Maintenance Workers, All Other
602) Hairdressers, Hairstylists, and Cosmetologists
603) Hand and Portable Power Tool Repairers
604) Hand Compositors and Typesetters
605) Hazardous Materials Removal Workers
606) Health and Safety Engineers, Except Mining Safety Engineers and Inspectors
607) Health Diagnosing and Treating Practitioners, All Other
608) Health Educators
609) Health Specialties Teachers, Postsecondary
610) Health Technologists and Technicians, All Other
611) Healthcare Practitioners and Technical Workers, All Other
612) Healthcare Support Workers, All Other
613) Hearing Aid Specialists *** New ***
614) Heat Treating Equipment Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic
615) Heat Treating, Annealing, and Tempering Machine Operators and Tenders, Metal and Plastic
616) Heaters, Metal and Plastic
617) Heating and Air Conditioning Mechanics
618) Heating Equipment Setters and Set-Up Operators, Metal and Plastic
619) Heating, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Mechanics and Installers
620) Helpers, Construction Trades, All Other
621) Helpers–Brickmasons, Blockmasons, Stonemasons, and Tile and Marble Setters
622) Helpers–Carpenters
623) Helpers–Electricians
624) Helpers–Extraction Workers
625) Helpers–Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Workers
626) Helpers–Painters, Paperhangers, Plasterers, and Stucco Masons
627) Helpers–Pipelayers, Plumbers, Pipefitters, and Steamfitters
628) Helpers–Production Workers
629) Helpers–Roofers
630) Highway Maintenance Workers
631) Highway Patrol Pilots
632) Historians
633) History Teachers, Postsecondary
634) Histotechnologists and Histologic Technicians *** New ***
635) Hoist and Winch Operators
636) Home Appliance Installers
637) Home Appliance Repairers
638) Home Economics Teachers, Postsecondary
639) Home Health Aides
640) Hospitalists *** New ***
641) Hosts and Hostesses, Restaurant, Lounge, and Coffee Shop
642) Hotel, Motel, and Resort Desk Clerks
643) Housekeeping Supervisors
644) Human Factors Engineers and Ergonomists *** New ***
645) Human Resources Assistants, Except Payroll and Timekeeping
646) Human Resources Manager *** New ***
647) Human Resources Managers
648) Human Resources Managers, All Other
649) Human Resources, Training, and Labor Relations Specialists, All Other
650) Hunters and Trappers
651) Hydroelectric Plant Technicians *** New ***
652) Hydroelectric Production Managers *** New ***
653) Hydrologists
654) Immigration and Customs Inspectors
655) Industrial Ecologists *** New ***
656) Industrial Engineering Technicians
657) Industrial Engineering Technologists *** New ***
658) Industrial Engineers
659) Industrial Machinery Mechanics
660) Industrial Production Managers
661) Industrial Safety and Health Engineers
662) Industrial Truck and Tractor Operators
663) Industrial-Organizational Psychologists
664) Infantry
665) Infantry Officers
666) Informatics Nurse Specialists *** New ***
667) Information and Record Clerks, All Other
668) Information Security Analysts *** New ***
669) Information Technology Project Managers *** New ***
670) Inspectors, Testers, Sorters, Samplers, and Weighers
671) Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Workers, All Other
672) Instructional Coordinators
673) Instructional Designers and Technologists *** New ***
674) Insulation Workers, Floor, Ceiling, and Wall
675) Insulation Workers, Mechanical
676) Insurance Adjusters, Examiners, and Investigators
677) Insurance Appraisers, Auto Damage
678) Insurance Claims and Policy Processing Clerks
679) Insurance Claims Clerks
680) Insurance Policy Processing Clerks
681) Insurance Sales Agents
682) Insurance Underwriters
683) Intelligence Analysts *** New ***
684) Interior Designers
685) Internists, General
686) Interpreters and Translators
687) Interviewers, Except Eligibility and Loan
688) Investment Fund Managers *** New ***
689) Investment Underwriters *** New ***
690) Irradiated-Fuel Handlers
691) Janitorial Supervisors
692) Janitors and Cleaners, Except Maids and Housekeeping Cleaners
693) Jewelers
694) Jewelers and Precious Stone and Metal Workers
695) Job Printers
696) Judges, Magistrate Judges, and Magistrates
697) Judicial Law Clerks *** New ***
698) Keyboard Instrument Repairers and Tuners
699) Kindergarten Teachers, Except Special Education
700) Labor Relations Specialists *** New ***
701) Laborers and Freight, Stock, and Material Movers, Hand
702) Landscape Architects
703) Landscaping and Groundskeeping Workers
704) Lathe and Turning Machine Tool Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic
705) Laundry and Drycleaning Machine Operators and Tenders, Except Pressing
706) Laundry and Dry-Cleaning Workers
707) Law Clerks
708) Law Teachers, Postsecondary
709) Lawn Service Managers
710) Lawyers
711) Lay-Out Workers, Metal and Plastic
712) Legal Secretaries
713) Legal Support Workers, All Other
714) Legislators
715) Letterpress Setters and Set-Up Operators
716) Librarians
717) Library Assistants, Clerical
718) Library Science Teachers, Postsecondary
719) Library Technicians
720) License Clerks
721) Licensed Practical and Licensed Vocational Nurses
722) Licensing Examiners and Inspectors
723) Life Scientists, All Other
724) Life, Physical, and Social Science Technicians, All Other
725) Lifeguards, Ski Patrol, and Other Recreational Protective Service Workers
726) Loading Machine Operators, Underground Mining
727) Loan Counselor *** New ***
728) Loan Counselors
729) Loan Interviewers and Clerks
730) Loan Officers
731) Locker Room, Coatroom, and Dressing Room Attendants
732) Locksmiths and Safe Repairers
733) Locomotive Engineers
734) Locomotive Firers
735) Lodging Managers
736) Log Graders and Scalers
737) Logging Equipment Operators
738) Logging Tractor Operators
739) Logging Workers, All Other
740) Logisticians
741) Logistics Analysts *** New ***
742) Logistics Engineers *** New ***
743) Logistics Managers *** New ***
744) Loss Prevention Managers *** New ***
745) Low Vision Therapists, Orientation and Mobility Specialists, and Vision Rehabilitation Therapists *** New ***
746) Machine Feeders and Offbearers
747) Machinists
748) Magnetic Resonance Imaging Technologists *** New ***
749) Maids and Housekeeping Cleaners
750) Mail Clerks and Mail Machine Operators, Except Postal Service
751) Mail Clerks, Except Mail Machine Operators and Postal Service
752) Mail Machine Operators, Preparation and Handling
753) Maintenance and Repair Worker *** New ***
754) Maintenance and Repair Workers, General
755) Maintenance Workers, Machinery
756) Makeup Artists, Theatrical and Performance
757) Management Analysts
758) Managers, All Other
759) Manicurists and Pedicurists
760) Manufactured Building and Mobile Home Installers
761) Manufacturing Engineering Technologists *** New ***
762) Manufacturing Engineers *** New ***
763) Manufacturing Production Technicians *** New ***
764) Mapping Technicians
765) Marine Architects
766) Marine Cargo Inspectors
767) Marine Engineers
768) Marine Engineers and Naval Architects
769) Market Research Analysts
770) Market Research Analysts and Marketing Specialists *** New ***
771) Marketing Managers
772) Marking and Identification Printing Machine Setters and Set-Up Operators
773) Marking Clerks
774) Marriage and Family Therapists
775) Massage Therapists
776) Material Moving Workers, All Other
777) Materials Engineers
778) Materials Inspectors
779) Materials Scientists
780) Mates- Ship, Boat, and Barge
781) Mathematical Science Occupations, All Other
782) Mathematical Science Teachers, Postsecondary
783) Mathematical Technicians
784) Mathematicians
785) Meat, Poultry, and Fish Cutters and Trimmers
786) Mechanical Door Repairers
787) Mechanical Drafters
788) Mechanical Engineering Technicians
789) Mechanical Engineering Technologists *** New ***
790) Mechanical Engineers
791) Mechanical Inspectors
792) Mechatronics Engineers *** New ***
793) Media and Communication Equipment Workers, All Other
794) Media and Communication Workers, All Other
795) Medical and Clinical Laboratory Technicians
796) Medical and Clinical Laboratory Technologists
797) Medical and Health Services Managers
798) Medical and Public Health Social Workers
799) Medical Appliance Technicians
800) Medical Assistants
801) Medical Equipment Preparers
802) Medical Equipment Repairers
803) Medical Records and Health Information Technicians
804) Medical Scientists, Except Epidemiologists
805) Medical Secretaries
806) Medical Transcriptionists
807) Meeting and Convention Planners
808) Mental Health and Substance Abuse Social Workers
809) Mental Health Counselors
810) Merchandise Displayers and Window Trimmers
811) Metal Fabricators, Structural Metal Products
812) Metal Molding, Coremaking, and Casting Machine Operators and Tenders
813) Metal Molding, Coremaking, and Casting Machine Setters and Set-Up Operators
814) Metal Workers and Plastic Workers, All Other
815) Metal-Refining Furnace Operators and Tenders
816) Meter Mechanics
817) Meter Readers, Utilities
818) Methane Landfill Gas Generation System Technicians *** New ***
819) Methane/Landfill Gas Collection System Operators *** New ***
820) Microbiologists
821) Microsystems Engineers *** New ***
822) Middle School Teachers, Except Special and Vocational Education
823) Midwives *** New ***
824) Military Enlisted Tactical Operations and Air–Weapons Specialists and Crew Members, All Other
825) Military Officer Special and Tactical Operations Leaders–Managers, All Other
826) Milling and Planing Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic
827) Millwrights
828) Mine Cutting and Channeling Machine Operators
829) Mining and Geological Engineers, Including Mining Safety Engineers
830) Mining Machine Operators, All Other
831) Mixing and Blending Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders
832) Mobile Heavy Equipment Mechanics, Except Engines
833) Model and Mold Makers, Jewelry
834) Model Makers, Metal and Plastic
835) Model Makers, Wood
836) Models
837) Mold Makers, Hand
838) Molders, Shapers, and Casters, Except Metal and Plastic
839) Molding and Casting Workers
840) Molding, Coremaking, and Casting Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic
841) Molecular and Cellular Biologists *** New ***
842) Morticians, Undertakers, and Funeral Directors *** New ***
843) Motion Picture Projectionists
844) Motor Vehicle Inspectors
845) Motor Vehicle Operators, All Other
846) Motorboat Mechanics
847) Motorboat Operators
848) Motorcycle Mechanics
849) Multi-Media Artists and Animators
850) Multiple Machine Tool Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic
851) Municipal Clerks
852) Municipal Fire Fighters
853) Municipal Fire Fighting and Prevention Supervisors
854) Museum Technicians and Conservators
855) Music Arrangers and Orchestrators
856) Music Composers and Arrangers *** New ***
857) Music Directors
858) Music Directors and Composers
859) Music Therapists *** New ***
860) Musical Instrument Repairers and Tuners
861) Musicians and Singers
862) Musicians, Instrumental
863) Nannies *** New ***
864) Nanosystems Engineers *** New ***
865) Nanotechnology Engineering Technicians *** New ***
866) Nanotechnology Engineering Technologists *** New ***
867) Natural Sciences Managers
868) Naturopathic Physicians *** New ***
869) Network and Computer Systems Administrator *** New ***
870) Network and Computer Systems Administrators
871) Network Systems and Data Communications Analysts
872) Neurodiagnostic Technologists *** New ***
873) Neurologists *** New ***
874) Neuropsychologists and Clinical Neuropsychologists *** New ***
875) New Accounts Clerks
876) Non-Destructive Testing Specialists *** New ***
877) Nonelectrolytic Plating and Coating Machine Operators and Tenders, Metal and Plastic
878) Nonelectrolytic Plating and Coating Machine Setters and Set-Up Operators, Metal and Plastic
879) Nonfarm Animal Caretakers
880) Nuclear Engineers
881) Nuclear Equipment Operation Technicians
882) Nuclear Medicine Physicians *** New ***
883) Nuclear Medicine Technologists
884) Nuclear Monitoring Technicians
885) Nuclear Power Reactor Operators
886) Nuclear Technicians
887) Numerical Control Machine Tool Operators and Tenders, Metal and Plastic
888) Numerical Tool and Process Control Programmers
889) Nurse Anesthetists *** New ***
890) Nurse Midwives *** New ***
891) Nurse Practitioners *** New ***
892) Nursery and Greenhouse Manager *** New ***
893) Nursery and Greenhouse Managers
894) Nursery Workers
895) Nursing Aides, Orderlies, and Attendants
896) Nursing Assistants *** New ***
897) Nursing Instructors and Teachers, Postsecondary
898) Obstetricians and Gynecologists
899) Occupational Health and Safety Specialists
900) Occupational Health and Safety Technicians
901) Occupational Therapist Aides
902) Occupational Therapist Assistants
903) Occupational Therapists
904) Office and Administrative Support Workers, All Other
905) Office Clerks, General
906) Office Machine and Cash Register Servicers
907) Office Machine Operators, Except Computer
908) Offset Lithographic Press Setters and Set-Up Operators
909) Online Merchants *** New ***
910) Operating Engineers
911) Operating Engineers and Other Construction Equipment Operators
912) Operations Research Analysts
913) Ophthalmic Laboratory Technicians
914) Ophthalmic Medical Technicians *** New ***
915) Ophthalmic Medical Technologists *** New ***
916) Ophthalmologists *** New ***
917) Optical Instrument Assemblers
918) Opticians, Dispensing
919) Optometrists
920) Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
921) Order Clerks
922) Order Fillers, Wholesale and Retail Sales
923) Orderlies *** New ***
924) Ordinary Seamen and Marine Oilers
925) Orthodontists
926) Orthoptists *** New ***
927) Orthotists and Prosthetists
928) Outdoor Power Equipment and Other Small Engine Mechanics
929) Packaging and Filling Machine Operators and Tenders
930) Packers and Packagers, Hand
931) Painters and Illustrators
932) Painters, Construction and Maintenance
933) Painters, Transportation Equipment
934) Painting, Coating, and Decorating Workers
935) Pantograph Engravers
936) Paper Goods Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders
937) Paperhangers
938) Paralegals and Legal Assistants
939) Park Naturalists
940) Parking Enforcement Workers
941) Parking Lot Attendants
942) Parts Salespersons
943) Paste-Up Workers
944) Pathologists *** New ***
945) Patient Representatives *** New ***
946) Patternmakers, Metal and Plastic
947) Patternmakers, Wood
948) Paving, Surfacing, and Tamping Equipment Operators
949) Payroll and Timekeeping Clerks
950) Pediatricians, General
951) Percussion Instrument Repairers and Tuners
952) Personal and Home Care Aides
953) Personal Care and Service Workers, All Other
954) Personal Financial Advisors
955) Personnel Recruiters
956) Pest Control Workers
957) Pesticide Handlers, Sprayers, and Applicators, Vegetation
958) Petroleum Engineers
959) Petroleum Pump System Operators
960) Petroleum Pump System Operators, Refinery Operators, and Gaugers
961) Petroleum Refinery and Control Panel Operators
962) Pewter Casters and Finishers
963) Pharmacists
964) Pharmacy Aides
965) Pharmacy Technicians
966) Philosophy and Religion Teachers, Postsecondary
967) Phlebotomists *** New ***
968) Photoengravers
969) Photoengraving and Lithographing Machine Operators and Tenders
970) Photographers
971) Photographers, Scientific
972) Photographic Hand Developers
973) Photographic Process Workers
974) Photographic Process Workers and Processing Machine Operators *** New ***
975) Photographic Processing Machine Operators
976) Photographic Reproduction Technicians
977) Photographic Retouchers and Restorers
978) Photonics Engineers *** New ***
979) Photonics Technicians *** New ***
980) Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Physicians *** New ***
981) Physical Scientists, All Other
982) Physical Therapist Aides
983) Physical Therapist Assistants
984) Physical Therapists
985) Physician Assistants
986) Physicians and Surgeons, All Other
987) Physicists
988) Physics Teachers, Postsecondary
989) Pile-Driver Operators
990) Pilots, Ship
991) Pipe Fitters
992) Pipelayers
993) Pipelaying Fitters
994) Plant and System Operators, All Other
995) Plant Scientists
996) Plasterers and Stucco Masons
997) Plastic Molding and Casting Machine Operators and Tenders
998) Plastic Molding and Casting Machine Setters and Set-Up Operators
999) Plate Finishers
1000) Platemakers
1001) Plating and Coating Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic
1002) Plumbers
1003) Plumbers, Pipefitters, and Steamfitters
1004) Podiatrists
1005) Poets and Lyricists
1006) Poets, Lyricists and Creative Writers *** New ***
1007) Police and Sheriffs Patrol Officers
1008) Police Detectives
1009) Police Identification and Records Officers
1010) Police Patrol Officers
1011) Police, Fire, and Ambulance Dispatchers
1012) Political Science Teachers, Postsecondary
1013) Political Scientists
1014) Postal Service Clerks
1015) Postal Service Mail Carriers
1016) Postal Service Mail Sorters, Processors, and Processing Machine Operators
1017) Postmasters and Mail Superintendents
1018) Postsecondary Teachers, All Other
1019) Potters
1020) Pourers and Casters, Metal
1021) Power Distributors and Dispatchers
1022) Power Generating Plant Operators, Except Auxiliary Equipment Operators
1023) Power Plant Operators
1024) Precious Metal Workers *** New ***
1025) Precision Agriculture Technicians *** New ***
1026) Precision Devices Inspectors and Testers
1027) Precision Dyers
1028) Precision Etchers and Engravers, Hand or Machine
1029) Precision Instrument and Equipment Repairers, All Other
1030) Precision Lens Grinders and Polishers
1031) Precision Mold and Pattern Casters, except Nonferrous Metals
1032) Precision Pattern and Die Casters, Nonferrous Metals
1033) Precision Printing Workers
1034) Prepress Technician *** New ***
1035) Prepress Technicians and Workers
1036) Preschool Teachers, Except Special Education
1037) Press and Press Brake Machine Setters and Set-Up Operators, Metal and Plastic
1038) Pressers, Delicate Fabrics
1039) Pressers, Hand
1040) Pressers, Textile, Garment, and Related Materials
1041) Pressing Machine Operators and Tenders- Textile, Garment, and Related Materials
1042) Pressure Vessel Inspectors
1043) Preventive Medicine Physicians *** New ***
1044) Print Binding and Finishing Workers *** New ***
1045) Printing Machine Operators
1046) Printing Press Machine Operators and Tenders
1047) Printing Press Operators *** New ***
1048) Private Detectives and Investigators
1049) Private Sector Executives
1050) Probation Officers and Correctional Treatment Specialists
1051) Procurement Clerks
1052) Producers
1053) Producers and Directors
1054) Product Safety Engineers
1055) Production Helpers
1056) Production Inspectors, Testers, Graders, Sorters, Samplers, Weighers
1057) Production Laborers
1058) Production Workers, All Other
1059) Production, Planning, and Expediting Clerks
1060) Professional Photographers
1061) Program Directors
1062) Proofreaders and Copy Markers
1063) Property, Real Estate, and Community Association Managers
1064) Prosthodontists
1065) Protective Service Workers, All Other
1066) Psychiatric Aides
1067) Psychiatric Technicians
1068) Psychiatrists
1069) Psychologists, All Other
1070) Psychology Teachers, Postsecondary
1071) Public Address System and Other Announcers
1072) Public Relations Managers
1073) Public Relations Specialists
1074) Public Transportation Inspectors
1075) Pump Operators, Except Wellhead Pumpers
1076) Punching Machine Setters and Set-Up Operators, Metal and Plastic
1077) Purchasing Agents and Buyers, Farm Products
1078) Purchasing Agents, Except Wholesale, Retail, and Farm Products
1079) Purchasing Managers
1080) Quality Control Analysts *** New ***
1081) Quality Control Systems Managers *** New ***
1082) Radar and Sonar Technicians
1083) Radiation Therapists
1084) Radio and Television Announcers
1085) Radio Frequency Identification Device Specialists *** New ***
1086) Radio Mechanic *** New ***
1087) Radio Mechanics
1088) Radio Operators
1089) Radiologic Technician *** New ***
1090) Radiologic Technicians
1091) Radiologic Technologists
1092) Radiologic Technologists and Technicians
1093) Radiologists *** New ***
1094) Rail Car Repairers
1095) Rail Transportation Workers, All Other
1096) Rail Yard Engineers, Dinkey Operators, and Hostlers
1097) Railroad Brake, Signal, and Switch Operators
1098) Railroad Conductors and Yardmasters
1099) Railroad Inspectors
1100) Railroad Yard Workers
1101) Rail-Track Laying and Maintenance Equipment Operators
1102) Range Managers
1103) Real Estate Brokers
1104) Real Estate Sales Agents
1105) Receptionists and Information Clerks
1106) Recreation and Fitness Studies Teachers, Postsecondary
1107) Recreation Workers
1108) Recreational Therapists
1109) Recreational Vehicle Service Technicians
1110) Recycling and Reclamation Workers *** New ***
1111) Recycling Coordinators *** New ***
1112) Reed or Wind Instrument Repairers and Tuners
1113) Refractory Materials Repairers, Except Brickmasons
1114) Refrigeration Mechanics
1115) Refuse and Recyclable Material Collectors
1116) Registered Nurses
1117) Registered Nurses *** New ***
1118) Regulatory Affairs Managers *** New ***
1119) Regulatory Affairs Specialists *** New ***
1120) Rehabilitation Counselors
1121) Reinforcing Iron and Rebar Workers
1122) Religious Workers, All Other
1123) Remote Sensing Scientists and Technologists *** New ***
1124) Remote Sensing Technicians *** New ***
1125) Reporters and Correspondents
1126) Reservation and Transportation Ticket Agents
1127) Reservation and Transportation Ticket Agents and Travel Clerks
1128) Residential Advisors
1129) Respiratory Therapists
1130) Respiratory Therapy Technicians
1131) Retail Loss Prevention Specialists *** New ***
1132) Retail Salespersons
1133) Riggers
1134) Risk Management Specialists *** New ***
1135) Robotics Engineers *** New ***
1136) Robotics Technicians *** New ***
1137) Rock Splitters, Quarry
1138) Rolling Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic
1139) Roof Bolters, Mining
1140) Roofers
1141) Rotary Drill Operators, Oil and Gas
1142) Rough Carpenters
1143) Roustabouts, Oil and Gas
1144) Sailors and Marine Oilers
1145) Sales Agents, Financial Services
1146) Sales Agents, Securities and Commodities
1147) Sales and Related Workers, All Other
1148) Sales Engineers
1149) Sales Managers
1150) Sales Representatives, Agricultural
1151) Sales Representatives, Chemical and Pharmaceutical
1152) Sales Representatives, Electrical–Electronic
1153) Sales Representatives, Instruments
1154) Sales Representatives, Mechanical Equipment and Supplies
1155) Sales Representatives, Medical
1156) Sales Representatives, Services, All Other
1157) Sales Representatives, Wholesale and Manufacturing, Except Technical and Scientific Products
1158) Sales Representatives, Wholesale and Manufacturing, Technical and Scientific Products
1159) Sawing Machine Operators and Tenders
1160) Sawing Machine Setters and Set-Up Operators
1161) Sawing Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Wood
1162) Sawing Machine Tool Setters and Set-Up Operators, Metal and Plastic
1163) Scanner Operators
1164) Screen Printing Machine Setters and Set-Up Operators
1165) Sculptors
1166) Search Marketing Strategists *** New ***
1167) Secondary School Teachers, Except Special and Vocational Education
1168) Secretaries, Except Legal, Medical, and Executive
1169) Securities and Commodities Traders *** New ***
1170) Securities, Commodities, and Financial Services Sales Agents
1171) Security and Fire Alarm Systems Installers
1172) Security Guards
1173) Security Management Specialists *** New ***
1174) Security Managers *** New ***
1175) Segmental Pavers
1176) Self-Enrichment Education Teachers
1177) Semiconductor Processors
1178) Separating, Filtering, Clarifying, Precipitating, and Still Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders
1179) Septic Tank Servicers and Sewer Pipe Cleaners
1180) Service Station Attendants
1181) Service Unit Operators, Oil, Gas, and Mining
1182) Set and Exhibit Designers
1183) Set Designers
1184) Sewers, Hand
1185) Sewing Machine Operators
1186) Sewing Machine Operators, Garment
1187) Sewing Machine Operators, Non-Garment
1188) Shampooers
1189) Shear and Slitter Machine Setters and Set-Up Operators, Metal and Plastic
1190) Sheet Metal Workers
1191) Sheriffs and Deputy Sheriffs
1192) Ship and Boat Captains
1193) Ship Carpenters and Joiners
1194) Ship Engineers
1195) Shipping, Receiving, and Traffic Clerks
1196) Shoe and Leather Workers and Repairers
1197) Shoe Machine Operators and Tenders
1198) Shop and Alteration Tailors
1199) Shuttle Car Operators
1200) Signal and Track Switch Repairers
1201) Silversmiths
1202) Singers
1203) Sketch Artists
1204) Skin Care Specialists
1205) Slaughterers and Meat Packers
1206) Slot Key Persons
1207) Social and Community Service Managers
1208) Social and Human Service Assistants
1209) Social Science Research Assistants
1210) Social Sciences Teachers, Postsecondary, All Other
1211) Social Scientists and Related Workers, All Other
1212) Social Work Teachers, Postsecondary
1213) Social Workers, All Other
1214) Sociologists
1215) Sociology Teachers, Postsecondary
1216) Software Developers, Applications *** New ***
1217) Software Developers, Systems Software *** New ***
1218) Software Quality Assurance Engineers and Testers *** New ***
1219) Soil and Plant Scientists
1220) Soil Conservationists
1221) Soil Scientists
1222) Solar Energy Installation Managers *** New ***
1223) Solar Energy Systems Engineers *** New ***
1224) Solar Photovoltaic Installers *** New ***
1225) Solar Sales Representatives and Assessors *** New ***
1226) Solar Thermal Installers and Technicians *** New ***
1227) Solderers
1228) Solderers and Brazers *** New ***
1229) Soldering and Brazing Machine Operators and Tenders
1230) Soldering and Brazing Machine Setters and Set-Up Operators
1231) Sound Engineering Technicians
1232) Spa Managers *** New ***
1233) Special Education Teacher, Secondary School
1234) Special Education Teachers, Kindergarten and Elementary School *** New ***
1235) Special Education Teachers, Middle School *** New ***
1236) Special Education Teachers, Middle School
1237) Special Education Teachers, Preschool *** New ***
1238) Special Education Teachers, Preschool, Kindergarten, and Elementary School
1239) Special Education Teachers, Secondary School *** New ***
1240) Special Forces
1241) Special Forces Officers
1242) Speech-Language Pathologists
1243) Speech-Language Pathology Assistants *** New ***
1244) Sports Medicine Physicians *** New ***
1245) Spotters, Dry Cleaning
1246) Statement Clerks
1247) Station Installers and Repairers, Telephone
1248) Stationary Engineers
1249) Stationary Engineers and Boiler Operators
1250) Statistical Assistants
1251) Statisticians
1252) Stevedores, Except Equipment Operators
1253) Stock Clerks and Order Fillers
1254) Stock Clerks- Stockroom, Warehouse, or Storage Yard
1255) Stock Clerks, Sales Floor
1256) Stone Cutters and Carvers
1257) Stone Sawyers
1258) Stonemasons
1259) Storage and Distribution Managers
1260) Stringed Instrument Repairers and Tuners
1261) Strippers
1262) Structural Iron and Steel Workers
1263) Structural Metal Fabricators and Fitters
1264) Substance Abuse and Behavioral Disorder Counselors
1265) Subway and Streetcar Operators
1266) Supply Chain Managers *** New ***
1267) Surgeons
1268) Surgical Assistants *** New ***
1269) Surgical Technologists
1270) Survey Researchers
1271) Surveying and Mapping Technicians
1272) Surveying Technicians
1273) Surveyors
1274) Sustainability Specialists *** New ***
1275) Switchboard Operators, Including Answering Service
1276) Tailors, Dressmakers, and Custom Sewers
1277) Talent Directors
1278) Tank Car, Truck, and Ship Loaders
1279) Tapers
1280) Tax Examiners, Collectors, and Revenue Agents
1281) Tax Preparers
1282) Taxi Drivers and Chauffeurs
1283) Teacher Assistants
1284) Teachers and Instructors, All Other
1285) Team Assemblers
1286) Technical Directors–Managers
1287) Technical Writers
1288) Telecommunications Engineering Specialists *** New ***
1289) Telecommunications Equipment Installers and Repairers, Except Line Installers
1290) Telecommunications Facility Examiners
1291) Telecommunications Line Installers and Repairers
1292) Telemarketers
1293) Telephone Operators
1294) Tellers
1295) Terrazzo Workers and Finishers
1296) Textile Bleaching and Dyeing Machine Operators and Tenders
1297) Textile Cutting Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders
1298) Textile Knitting and Weaving Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders
1299) Textile Winding, Twisting, and Drawing Out Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders
1300) Textile, Apparel, and Furnishings Workers, All Other
1301) Therapists, All Other
1302) Tile and Marble Setters
1303) Timing Device Assemblers, Adjusters, and Calibrators
1304) Tire Builders
1305) Tire Repairers and Changers
1306) Title Examiners and Abstractors
1307) Title Examiners, Abstractors, and Searchers
1308) Title Searchers
1309) Tool and Die Makers
1310) Tool Grinders, Filers, and Sharpeners
1311) Tour Guides and Escorts
1312) Tour Guides and Escorts *** New ***
1313) Tractor-Trailer Truck Drivers
1314) Traffic Technicians
1315) Train Crew Members
1316) Training and Development Manager
1317) Training and Development Managers *** New ***
1318) Training and Development Specialists *** New ***
1319) Training and Development Specialists
1320) Transformer Repairers
1321) Transit and Railroad Police
1322) Transportation Attendants, Except Flight Attendants *** New ***
1323) Transportation Attendants, Except Flight Attendants and Baggage Porters
1324) Transportation Engineers *** New ***
1325) Transportation Inspectors
1326) Transportation Managers
1327) Transportation Planners *** New ***
1328) Transportation Security Screeners *** New ***
1329) Transportation Vehicle, Equipment and Systems Inspectors, Except Aviation *** New ***
1330) Transportation Workers, All Other
1331) Transportation, Storage, and Distribution Managers
1332) Travel Agents
1333) Travel Clerks
1334) Travel Guide *** New ***
1335) Travel Guides
1336) Treasurers, Controllers, and Chief Financial Officers
1337) Tree Trimmers and Pruners
1338) Truck Drivers, Heavy
1339) Truck Drivers, Heavy and Tractor-Trailer
1340) Truck Drivers, Light or Delivery Services
1341) Tutors *** New ***
1342) Typesetting and Composing Machine Operators and Tenders
1343) Umpires, Referees, and Other Sports Officials
1344) Upholsterers
1345) Urban and Regional Planners
1346) Urologists *** New ***
1347) Ushers, Lobby Attendants, and Ticket Takers
1348) Validation Engineers *** New ***
1349) Valve and Regulator Repairers
1350) Veterinarians
1351) Veterinary Assistants and Laboratory Animal Caretakers
1352) Veterinary Technologists and Technicians
1353) Video Game Designers *** New ***
1354) Vocational Education Teachers Postsecondary
1355) Vocational Education Teachers, Middle School
1356) Vocational Education Teachers, Secondary School
1357) Waiters and Waitresses
1358) Watch Repairers
1359) Water and Liquid Waste Treatment Plant and System Operators
1360) Water Resource Specialists *** New ***
1361) Water/Wastewater Engineers *** New ***
1362) Weatherization Installers and Technicians *** New ***
1363) Web Administrators *** New ***
1364) Web Developers *** New ***
1365) Weighers, Measurers, Checkers, and Samplers, Recordkeeping
1366) Welder-Fitters
1367) Welders and Cutters
1368) Welders, Cutters, and Welder Fitters *** New ***
1369) Welders, Cutters, Solderers, and Brazers
1370) Welders, Production
1371) Welding Machine Operators and Tenders
1372) Welding Machine Setters and Set-Up Operators
1373) Welding, Soldering, and Brazing Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders
1374) Welfare Eligibility Workers and Interviewers
1375) Well and Core Drill Operators
1376) Wellhead Pumpers
1377) Wholesale and Retail Buyers, Except Farm Products
1378) Wind Energy Engineers *** New ***
1379) Wind Energy Operations Managers *** New ***
1380) Wind Energy Project Managers *** New ***
1381) Wind Turbine Service Technicians *** New ***
1382) Woodworkers, All Other
1383) Woodworking Machine Operators and Tenders, Except Sawing
1384) Woodworking Machine Setters and Set-Up Operators, Except Sawing
1385) Woodworking Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Except Sawing
1386) Word Processors and Typists
1387) Writers and Authors
1388) Zoologists and Wildlife Biologists

Dumb engineers failed to create enough IP Addresses for the arts guys early enough

It is often said, “the Internet is running out of phone numbers,” as a way to express that the Internet is running out of IPv4 addresses, to those who are unfamiliar with Internet technologies. IPv4 addresses, like phone numbers are assigned hierarchically, and thus, have inherent inefficiency. The world’s Internet population has been growing and the number of Internet-connected devices continues to rise, with no end in sight. In the next week, the American Registry for Internet Numbers (ARIN) will have exhausted their supply of IPv4 addresses. The metaphorical IPv4 cupboards are bare. This long-predicted Internet historical event marks opening a new chapter of the Internet’s evolution. However, it is somehow anti-climactic now that this date has arrived. The Internet will continue to operate, but all organizations must now accelerate their efforts to deploy IPv6.
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ARIN IPv4 Address Exhaustion

The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) delegates authority for Internet resources to the five RIRs that cover the world. The American Registry for Internet Numbers (ARIN) is the Regional Internet Registry (RIR) for the United States, Canada, the Caribbean, and North Atlantic islands. ARIN has been managing the assignment of IPv4 and IPv6 addresses and Autonomous System (AS) numbers for several decades. Each RIR has been managing their limited IPv4 address stores and going through their various phases of exhaustion policies. ARIN has been in Phase 4 of their IPv4 depletion plan for more than a year now. ARIN will soon announce that they have completely extinguished their supply of IPv4 addresses.

At this point, the rules for how address resources are allocated will change. Address resource applicants may not get their justified request fulfilled and might be offered a smaller block or the choice to be added to a waiting list. This page documents the process for the waiting list for unmet IPv4 address requests. To review the unmet resource policies, consult the Number Resource Policy Manual (NRPM), check out section 4.1.8. However, when the supply of IPv4 address space drops to 0.00000, then there will be no more addresses to allocate. If IPv4 addresses become available, then the policies in the NRPM will dictate that they are given out based on the Waiting List for Unmet Requests method.
IPv4 Exhaustion Predicted for Decades

Predictions of IPv4 depletion date back to the early 1990s. The IETF formed the Address Lifetime Expectations (ALE) Working Group in the mid-1990s to analyze the rate of IPv4 adoption in anticipation that this date would come. IPv4 address supply concerns was the primary reasons the IETF wanted to create a new version of the Internet Protocol (IP). The IETF IP Next Generation (IPng) working group started their work around that time and the first IPng was drafted around 1993. In those early days of the Internet, no one could have predicted the tremendous growth of the Internet. The IETF created Internet Protocol version 6 and finalized the header format with RFC 2460 in 1998. Each year as the IPv4 Internet grew at breakneck speeds, transition to IPv6 had become more and more daunting.
Prolonging IPv4’s Lifespan

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As the Internet began to grow, techniques like Classless Interdomain Routing (CIDR) and Network Address Translation (NAT) were used to extended life-support for IPv4 for almost two decades. Now ISPs are looking at using Carrier Grade NAT (CGN)/Large Scale NAT (LSN) to further prolong the use of IPv4. However, many of these multi-NAT techniques cause problems for many popular Internet applications. We can expect that there will be other techniques contrived to keep the much-loved IPv4 protocol running for decades to come.
No End in Sight for IPv4

Few organizations are thinking about when they may eventually stop using IPv4. Some enterprise organizations have not given IPv6 much thought and are not aggressively moving to implementing it. Organizations will not be able to transition right from using IPv4 to using IPv6 directly. The dual-stack transition technique is the dominant transition strategy (tunnels are to be avoided when possible). In other words, organizations are encouraged to use native IPv6.

Even if an organization starts to deploy IPv6 immediately, they will still require the use of IPv4 for years to come. IPv6 may not have a large impact on an organization’s near-term IPv4 address constraints. Those few enterprise organizations are playing a dangerous “game of chicken” by ignoring IPv6. While, there are techniques for prolonging the lifespan of IPv4, organizations may end up with limited options. Going forward, organizations that require additional IPv4 addresses will need to request them from their service provider (provided they have any addresses left to lease) or purchase them on the open market. As IPv4 address blocks get traded around and split up, we can expect the Internet routing tables to become increasingly fragmented.

Organizations that deploy IPv6 will be living in a dual-stack world for many years. During that period of using both IPv4 and IPv6 in parallel, organizations will likely incur increased operating expenses. Gradually, over time, the cost of running an IPv4 network will increase.
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Now What? Move to IPv6!

So now that this Internet historic date of ARIN’s IPv4 run-out has arrived, we should review what our own organizations are doing to plan for the next phase of the Internet’s lifespan.

Internet Service Providers (ISPs) should already be well on their way through their IPv6 deployments. If you work for an ISP that has not yet started your IPv6 deployment then you are in serious danger of falling far behind your competitors.

If you are an enterprise organization, then your plans for the future need to be quickly defined and put into action. Your organization no longer has the option to continue to ignore IPv6. However, your organization may be planning to invest in purchasing additional IPv4 addresses. Your organizations will be forced to tolerate the use of multiple-layers of NAT and the application problems that come with it. Your organization will be forced to invest in larger Internet routers to be able to handle the rapidly expanding IPv4 Internet routing tables. Your organization should be planning for future years of legacy IPv4-Internet connectivity and actively moving toward full deployment of IPv6.

If your organization is one of those that waited to embrace IPv6, then you are in luck, as there are plenty of resources available to help you with your IPv6 planning and deployment. While Wikipedia.org can get you started learning the basics, you should visit the Internet Society Deploy360 Programme IPv6 page. You should also explore ARIN’s own Get6 site. We wish you the best of luck configuring your systems so you can reach the “whole Internet” using IPv6 and not just the “old Internet” using IPv4.

System Restoring Ubuntu

Back In Time : System Restore on Ubuntu
March 24, 2010 Andrew Weber Leave a comment Go to comments

One of the most treasured features by novice computer users running Windows is the ability to easily roll back their system when trouble arises by using the built-in System Restore GUI. Ubuntu offers the same services to take snapshots of your computer when changes are made and the Back in Time application for Linux is a great tool to achieve the same easy-to-use GUI. The program utilizes existing services including rsync for creating and applying restore snapshots and diff for monitoring system changes. Back in Time allows you to backup all folders and restore any folders with write access in the event of a problem following a system change.

The first thing you’ll need to do is edit your /etc/apt/source.list file; use the following command to open the file in the editor:

sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list

Add this line before saving and exiting the editor:

deb http://le-web.org/repository stable main

Next you’ll need to add the necessary GPG key information. Use this command to retrieve the key:

wget http://le-web.org/repository/le-web.key

And then use this command to add the information:

sudo apt-key add le-web.key

Once this is complete you’ll just need to update your source list; use this command:

sudo apt-get update

That’s it for system changes – now onto the installation of Back in Time:

sudo apt-get install backintime-common backintime-gnome

Once the installation completes you can access Back in Time under Applications -> System Tools -> Back in Time. You can now use the GUI to select folders to backup and schedule the backups to suit your timetable